According to National Institution for Transforming India( NITI) Aayog’s India Innovation Index 2021 report, India’s gross expenditure on research and development( R&D) is one of the lowest in the world with USD 43 per capita.

As per the report

  • India must boost R&D expenditure to reach on a par with BRICS( Brazil, Russia, India, China & South Africa) or ASEAN( Association of Southeast Asian Nations) countries similar as Russia( USD 285), Brazil( USD173), and Malaysia( USD 293).
  • This is the 3rd edition of India Innovation Index which adopts the framework of Global Innovation Index( GII), with 66 indicators across seven pillars.
  • Israel spends4.5 of its GDP on R&D, the highest in the world and developed countries like the United States, Sweden, and Switzerland spend about2.9,3.2 and3.4, respectively.


  • India’s Gross Expenditure on R&D( GERD) as 2 percent of GDP has been consistent to around0.7 for nearly a decade.
  • India’s overall share of GERD is lower than Brazil(1.16), South Africa(0.83), whereas Mexico(0.31) has a lower share of GERD than India.
  • Despite 3 low expenditure on R&D, India has published more research papers than even countries like Russia, Brazil, and South Korea, among others.
  • Karnataka has emerged as the best state among other major states, Manipur is the best performer among north-eastern and hilly countries and Chandigarh is the top performer among Union Territories( UTs)

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